Volume:6, Issue: 1

May. 1, 2014

The Global Media Literacy Imperative
Jolls, Tessa [about]

KEY WORDS: globalization, education, media, literacy, assessment, process, content, skills, local, global, village.

ABSTRACT. The increasing demand for human capital world wide has ignited a trend towards the globalization of education.  As nations compete to improve their standing on international assessments that focus primarily on students’ acquisition of content knowledge, we must ask:  are these assessments truly measuring what’s important to citizens and their countries?  Media literacy skills are central to contextualizing, acquiring and applying content knowledge -- it is these skills that are imperative for being an educated and competent citizen in the 21st century.


The globalization of education marches on inexorably as the integration of economies has created complex webs of capital, trade, information, currencies, services, supply chains, capital markets, information technology grids and technology platforms that form a more intricate, multifaceted system than a model of simple economic competition among nations. The competition for industries to attract talent and for citizens to obtain high-skill, high wage jobs – as well as the need to cooperate on the most pressing issues of our time, such as terrorism, water shortages, environmental changes and pandemic diseases -- has moved beyond national boundaries, with stakes for success higher than ever (Stewart, 2014).

These new economic realities and rapid shifts in labor markets are fundamentally changing education systems around the world. Over the last two decades, countries around the globe have been focused on expanding education as the key to maximizing individual wellbeing, reducing poverty and increasing economic growth.  For example, more than 33 million children were added to school rolls in Sub-Sahara Africa between 2000 and 2008 (UNESCO, 2010).  Because of dramatic global education gains, high school graduation has now become the norm in most industrialized countries (Stewart, 2014).

Looking ahead to 2020, the United States’ (U.S.) proportion of the global talent pool will shrink even further as China and India, with their enormous populations, rapidly expand their secondary and higher education systems.  In the past, the U.S. has had the largest supply of highly qualified people in the adult labor force of any country in the world. This tremendous stock of highly educated human capital helped the U.S. to become the dominant economy in the world and to take advantage of the globalization and expansion of markets (Stewart, 2014).

Now, access to high quality education institutions at all levels – independent education organizations, primary and secondary schools, and universities – is globalizing. Cultural organizations such as the Cervantes Institute, Goethe Institute, Alliance Francaise, and the Confucius Institute provide widely recognized language certificates on a global basis.  The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) offers international secondary schools, begun in 1962 by the Geneva-based International Schools Association.  Currently, the IBO works with over 3,700 schools in 147 countries serving more than one million students (IBO, 2014). The College Board introduced the Advanced Placement International Diploma in 1995; Cambridge International Examinations administers International A or AS Level university entrance exams in any combination of 55 subjects, beginning in 1988 (Consortium for Media Literacy, 2014).

With the path open to global applicants for higher education, Sylvan Learning Systems, renamed Laureate Education Inc. in 1999, launched its Laureate International University Network with the acquisition of the Universidad de Europea de Madrid.  Since then, the Laureate network has grown to include 76 institutions in 30 countries, with combined online and on-campus enrollments of about 800,000 students (Laureate, 2014).  In Qatar’s Education City, just outside the capital city of Doha, U.S.-based colleges now offer degree programs:  Cornell University has opened a medical school and Georgetown University has opened a branch of its School of Foreign Service, while Texas A&M has opened an engineering school (Consortium for Media Literacy, 2014).

As a result of these efforts and labor force demands, the desire to measure education attainment globally has spawned international assessments such as TIMSS, PIRLS, and PISA   (Stewart, 2014). The results of these tests provide a picture of how a nation’s elementary and secondary students are performing over time in various academic areas such as reading, math and science – but analysis of the assessments also raises questions about who is doing the testing, who is being tested, how students are being tested, what subjects students are being tested on, and whether needed knowledge, skills, and behaviors are being left out of the testing process altogether.

Employers are citing professionalism/work ethic, oral and written communications, teamwork/collaboration and critical thinking/problem solving as the most important skills for workplace readiness (Lotto and Barrington, 2006). But do the current curricula and assessments provide for these skills?

Some think not:  “So far, all international test scores measure the extent to which an education system effectively transmits prescribed content. In this regard, the U.S. education system is a failure and has been one for a long time. But the successful transmission of prescribed content contributes little to economies that require creative and entrepreneurial individual talents and in fact can damage the creative and entrepreneurial spirit. Thus high test scores of a nation can come at the cost of entrepreneurial and creative capacity,” said Yong Zhao, an assessment expert (Zhao, 2012).

Critical thinking, creativity and self-expression using technology tools are all hallmarks of media literacy education programs.  As education is increasingly globalized – online and off-line -- it is imperative to examine how media literacy education fits into the overall education picture that is emerging.

Some countries see the need for providing media literacy education.  Finland, long considered an education leader, now has adopted a national strategy for media literacy, issuing a call to action in 2013 (Finland Ministry of Education and Culture, 2013).  In 2009, the British Department of Culture, Media and Sport published the Digital Britain report, whose authors declared their ambition “To make the UK a world leader in research, innovation, technology and creativity, by inspiriting the next generation and creating the environment for digital talent to thrive” (OfCom, 2009). A supplemental Ofcom report addressed an educational expectation, arguing that media literacy skills must be embedded across primary, secondary and adult curricula.

The curricular frameworks of the IBO and the U.S.-based Partnership for 21st Century Skills both  include global citizenship and media literacy skills. UNESCO, the Saltsburg Academy for Media and Global Change, the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations, and the Center for Media Literacy are all examples of independent organizations that provide media literacy programs on a world-wide basis.  Yet all of these efforts are small in scale and are not institutionally embedded in national or international education systems.

With the proliferation of information and media tools, media literacy is a necessity, not a luxury, for today’s students. According to Julie Evans (2010), chief executive officer, Project Tomorrow, “A growing chorus of students says they are required to step back in time when they enter the school building each morning, powering down the productivity, learning and connectedness tools they use outside of school and that many adults now take for granted.” Evans stated that this is true   “despite overwhelming agreement among parents, teachers and principals that the effective implementation of technology in schools is crucial to student success.” Furthermore, Evans said (2014),  “(Students) want a greater alignment between their out‐of‐school learning life and what they experience in the classroom.”

“ Yet just installing technology is not enough.  Throwing technology at our students is missing the point.  It’s like saying ‘Give them cars, and they will drive,’ about a non-driving population,” said William Badke (2010), an academic reference librarian with Trinity Western University.

It islearning to navigate this infinite amount of global information that is the biggest challenge for adults and children today.  Citizens need media literacy skills to be:

  • Efficient managers of information
  • Wise consumers
  • Responsible producers and
  • Active and effective participants in today’s global culture.

Citizens naturally turn to their schools and in the past, to their libraries (and now to search engines, the internet and social media) to gain access to the information and skills they need.  In the past, because information was presented physically through printed texts or face-to-face, people physically traversed to “temples” of learning and literacy. But because access to information in the past required physical contact, the focus of learning tended to be on content knowledge that could be imprinted and retained more than on the information process skills that facilitate learning in an era when content is infinitely available at the tip of one’s fingers.

Society continues to value access to content knowledge as being scarce, and has built its institutions and teaching to reflect that value (Jolls, 2010). Yet access to content knowledge is no longer scarce – it is plentiful.  Conversely, the process skills of media literacy are indeed scarce and scarcely being taught, but these skills are not yet valued as highly in education institutions as access to content knowledge. The current valuing of content knowledge at the expense of process skills creates a misalignment between citizens’ education attainment and outcomes and what is truly important, what is valued, and what is measured.

Today, meeting citizens’ information needs requires both content knowledge and information process skills – knowing how to learn and how to access, analyze, evaluate, create and participate with multi-media information -- to provide the support and context needed for making every-day choices.  These information process skills represent the classic definition of media literacy (Aspen Media Literacy Leadership Institute, 1992).  In thinking about the interplay between content knowledge and process skills, one must ask, “Who can separate the dancer from the dance? “ But embedding the formal teaching and learning of process skills into the education system takes new understanding, new modeling and an ongoing, high-level, determined commitment. 

This chart captures some of the major shifts that technology has brought to the education world – changes with media literacy implications that educators are still struggling to understand and adapt to in both their local village and in the global village initially envisioned by media pioneer Marshall McLuhan (McLuhan, 1964).

Table 1. Comparisons between Local Village and Global

Village

Past Today
Local Village Global Village
Adult Guidance Plentiful Adult Guidance Scarce
Local Representations         Global Branding
Information Access Scarce  Information Access Plentiful
Information Acquisition      Information Sorting
Content Knowledge Transmitted Process Skills Practiced and Applied
Granular Content Knowledge Research-based Framework Sorting
Isolated Content Silos Integrated Problem Solving
Production by Few Production by Many
Access to Best Teachers Scarce Access to Best Teachers Plentiful through Technology
Physical Location of Schools Virtual School Locations

 (Jolls, 2008)

Examining this table more closely, the present education systems were born in an era when:

  • Children’s face-to-face contact with adults in the local village was intense on a daily basis, providing children with guidance and filters on the information and people they came in contact with.  Now, in the global village, such contact with adults is scarce. Children need internalized filtering systems based on media literacy.
  • Businesses and organizations in the local village were known individually. Today, businesses and organizations – and even individuals -- are often branded globally for instant recognition.
  • Information and access to printed information was scarce.  Now, information access is plentiful and can be overwhelming.
  • Content knowledge was passed down through individual teachers and printed information was often hard to obtain.  Now, sorting through and validating information are the priorities, using research-based frameworks grounded in information process skills. 
  • Content silos developed as ways to specialize and share scarce knowledge and scarce access; today, deep knowledge is readily documented and available while problem solving across disciplines, using specialized knowledge from various resources, is needed.
  • Production of media was controlled by a few; today, everyone is a media producer using digital tools.
  • Access to the best teachers was limited to physical proximity.  Today, everyone can have access to the best teachers through the global village. 
  • Students had to be physically present in school to progress; today, students are free from time, space and a lock-step pace. 
  • Learning to play together, to work in teams cooperatively, was confined to physical interaction.  Now, students can also learn teamwork through activities such as social media, media production or online sports and games. 
  • Students were more physically active because their world was more physical, with no online world available.  Today, students are less physically active, creating poor environments for physical health and wellbeing.  

With these changed conditions of the 21st Century life and the imperatives of globalization, it is important to ask:

If media literacy skills are central to being an educated citizen, why are media literacy skills not clearly defined and articulated through educational frameworks?  Why are these media literacy skills not the focal point for learning and acquiring content knowledge?

This is not to say that content knowledge is unimportant – quite the contrary – but media literacy skills in the global village are needed as the central tools through which to contextualize, acquire and apply content knowledge.  Media literacy skills are “constants” used in deconstructing and constructing communication through a process of inquiry. Content knowledge is “variable,” with an infinite number of subjects. Having media literacy – a consistent process of inquiry that is internalized -- enhances the ability to communicate and to share ideas through a common vocabulary that transcends subject areas as well as geographic boundaries. Thus, there are no “silos” with this method for teaching critical thinking because the media literacy skills are cross-curricular and common to all. It is through this process of inquiry that students acquire and master content knowledge, but both media literacy skills and content knowledge rest on a continuum of knowledge that can always be expanded and deepened.

This means that media literacy skills must be valued, articulated and taught systematically, in ways that are consistent, replicable, measurable and scalable globally (Jolls, 2012).  So while technology offers limitless information options, humans need filters and frameworks through which to negotiate meaning. John Naisbitt (1988) said, “Society is drowning in information and starved for knowledge;” that remains the case.  Beginning at birth, children need to learn media literacy skills to gain knowledge and to make wise choices.  Like learning to swim or to row, using these skills and internalizing them takes practice over time. Reinforcement and discussion with adults help children through the thickets while the adults learn too.

This adult interaction is essential since humans have “social” brains (Goswami, 2008), which acquire knowledge incrementally through cultural experience and social context. But children also need technical skills and equipment to thrive in the technological world. 

Increasingly, technology affords the necessary tools for curricular integration and a constructivist approach to education, in contrast to the traditional content silo approach that lacks little if any connection to the world outside the classroom.  These content silos, which define traditional academic subject areas such as language arts, mathematics, history and science, are rich in tradition and knowledge. However, silos also discourage sharing of knowledge, since content silos represent discreet and often impervious subject areas separated by their own unique vocabularies and views  (Hobbs, 2011). The silos provide endless opportunities to “drill down” deeper into a particular content area, but often at the expense of a broader perspective that contributes to real-world problem solving.

Reacting to pressure to increase performance (valued and defined as mastery of content knowledge), schools have mistakenly emphasized “more more more” content knowledge, and “more more more” testing of that content knowledge, at the expense of valuing process skills and explicitly labeling and teaching media literacy skills to enhance critical thinking and learning skills (Thoman and Jolls, 2004).  With access to caring adults scarce in the global village, children need internalized frameworks and process skills – media literacy -- now more than ever, to navigate the global media world on a lifelong basis.

Media literacy has yet to be taught systematically in today’s classrooms; however, initial research on the effectiveness of media literacy in impacting knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in classrooms is promising (Fingar and Jolls, 2013).   Globally, a new set of 3 R’s is needed:  to Re-examine, Re-value and Re-imagine the ingredients each school day offers students; how administrators and teachers meet student needs; and how the world chooses to value and assess students’ learning.  The nations who succeed in aligning their education systems with the new imperative for media literacy will be preparing their citizens for active and full participation in both their local and global villages.

References

  1. Aspen Media Literacy Leadership Institute (1992). A definition and more. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/media-literacy-definition-and-moreeferences
  2. Badke, W. (2010).  Lots of technology but we’re missing the point: providing only the tools isn’t enough. Retrieved April 30, 2010 from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2010/29/lots-of-technology-but-were-missing-the-point/
  3. Consortium for Media Literacy (2014).  Connections, Media literacy and the globalization of education. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://consortiumformedialiteracy.org/images/NEWSLETTERS/global%20education.pdf
  4. Department of Culture, Media and Sport, Great Britain (2009).  Digital Britain.  Retrieved April 9, 2014 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228844/7650.pdf
  5. Evans, J. (2009). As schools lose relevancy, students take charge of their own learning. Project Tomorrow. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.tomorrow.org/index.html
  6. Evans, J. (2014). Gender gap shrinks among students playing digital games. Project Tomorrow. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/pr/SU13_April_PR.html
  7. Fingar, K.R. & Jolls, T. (2013).  Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum.  Injury Prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/sites/default/files/Injury%20Prevention%20Journal%202013.pdf
  8. Finland Ministry of Education and Culture (2013). Good media literacy policy guidelines, 2013-2016. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Julkaisut/2013/liitteet/OKM13.pdf?lang=fi
  9. Goswami, U. (2008, January). Byron Review on the impact of new technologies on children. A research literature review. Child development Annex H to the Byron Review.  Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100202100434/http://dcsf.gov.uk/byronreview/pdfs/Goswami%20Child%20Development%20Literature%20Review%20for%20the%20Byron%20Review.pdf
  10. Hobbs, R. (2011).  Voices of Media Literacy: international pioneers speak.  Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/sites/default/files/Voices_of_ML_Renee_Hobbs.pdf
  11. IBO (2014).IB fast facts. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.ibo.org/facts/fastfacts/
  12. Jolls, T. (2008). Media Literacy: A system for learning anytime, anywhere. Part I: Change Management. Retrieved April 6, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/media-literacy-system-learning-anytime-anywhere-part-1-change-management
  13. Jolls, T. (2010). Media Literacy: A system for learning anytime, anywhere.  Part II: Deconstruction and Construction. Retrieved April 6, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/media-literacy-system-learning-anytime-anywhere-part-2-deconstructionconstruction
  14. Jolls, T. (2012).    Media Literacy: The foundation for anywhere, anytime learning.Retrieved April 6, 2014 from http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/unesco-international-conference-media-and-information-literacy
  15. Laureate (2014.)  Our locations. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.laureate.net/OurNetwork
  16. Lotto, J.C. & Barrington, L.  (2006).  Are they really ready to work? Employers’ perspectives on the basic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st century U.S. workforce. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.conference-board.org/publications/describe.cfm?id=1218
  17. McLuhan, M. (1964).  (Reprint 1994). Understanding media: The extensions of man, MIT Press, United States of America.  
  18. Naisbitt, J. (1988).  Megatrends: Ten new directions for transforming our lives. New York; Grand Central Publishing.
  19. Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2003). Learning for the 21st century: A report and mile guide for 21st century skills.  Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/downloads/P21_Report.pdf
  20. Stewart, V. (2014).  World-class education, chapter 1,  globalization and education. Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://ascd.org/publications/books/111016/chapters/Globalization-and-Education.aspx
  21. Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2004).  Media literacy: A national priority for a changing world. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 18-29. Doi-10, 1177/0002764204267246.  SUNESCO (2010).  Education investment jump in sub-Sahara Africa pays dividends with more children in school than ever says UNESCO report.  Retrieved April 9, 2014 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/education
  22. Zhao, Yong (2012). Numbers  can lie: what TIMSS and PISA truly tell Us, if anything?  Retrieved April 9, 2014 from  http://zhaolearning.com/2012/12/11/numbers-can-lie-what-timss-and-pisa-truly-tell-us-if-anything/




Joel William (Aug. 22, 2017)
Testo Muscle Fuel commonly the amount of flaking may be very restrained and isn't visible in any respect. trouble arises while there is a lot of such dead skin cells in our Testo Muscle Fuel scalp and it can cause itching inflammation or maybe loss of hair. http://www.oneidauniversity.com/
jackmen (Aug. 22, 2017)
extremely fascinating continue posting. custom wraparound porch home plans
Edward (Aug. 18, 2017)
Get a hold of some followers for insta free of charge. followers for instagram instagram page follow this read more
mts converter (Aug. 15, 2017)
mts videos player Software 4k mts converter playing mts videos and files convert mts to mp4, mts to mov avi wmv mkv 3gp
dubaiman (Aug. 14, 2017)
I love this post, i trust it need too much time to write this article,thank you, Need More Informations, Check here.
lahgh2wow (Aug. 12, 2017)
Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained! Satellitestreams
feebiar061 hill (Aug. 11, 2017)
The World's No1 Leader In Advanced Anabolic Bodybuilding Supplements For Bulking - Free, Fast & Reliable Shipping Worldwide, Buy 2 Get 1 Free. Best Legal Steroids
shipra brock (Aug. 09, 2017)
his is my first time i visit here. I found so many entertaining stuff in your blog, especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your articles, I guess I am not the only one having all the leisure here! Keep up the excellent work. wedding photography packages in Coimbatore
Robinjack (Aug. 08, 2017)
If you are backlinking through blogs, remember to put some good comments. If you are putting spam comments, they will be moderated and your website's or blog's link will not show up for public display. The Author Incubator
shipra brock (Aug. 07, 2017)
Hey – great blog, just looking around some blogs, seems a really nice platform you are using. I’m currently using WordPress for a few of my blogs but looking to change one of them over to a platform similar to yours as a trial run. Anything in particular you would recommend about it? purble place game
shipra brock (Aug. 03, 2017)
I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work. papa louie
Suzy Keranen (Aug. 03, 2017)
Harga besi siku baja Harga besi siku baja Agen pipa besi baja sch 40 sch 80 Harga besi wf Agen bondek undangan pernikahan unik Supplier Welded Beam T beam King Queen Cross Castellated Beam Supplier Pipa Besi baja Harga besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton delcoprima Jual besi siku baja Jual besi siku baja Agen Plat besi Jual besi wf Agen wiremesh undangan pernikahan ada foto Supplier Bondek Cor Agen Pipa Besi baja Jual besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton cakra steel cs Supplier besi siku baja Supplier besi siku baja Agen besi h beam Supplier besi wf Agen pipa besi baja sch 40 sch 80 undangan pernikahan yang unik Supplier Atap Spandek Sni Toko Pipa Besi baja Supplier besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton bjku Toko besi siku baja Toko besi siku baja Agen besi wf Toko besi wf Agen besi hollow undangan pernikahan ala jepang Supplier Plat Bordes Kembang jual laptop asus jual laptop asus jual laptop asus murah jual laptop asus murah Jual Pipa Besi baja Toko besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton Sni Ulir Polos Agen besi siku baja Agen besi siku baja Agen wiremesh Agen besi wf Agen besi beton Sni Ulir Polos undangan pernikahan simple undangan pernikahan arab Supplier Plat Besi Hitam Harga Pipa Besi baja Agen besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton ais Pabrik besi siku baja Pabrik besi siku baja Agen besi unp Pabrik besi wf Agen besi wf baja undangan pernikahan ala jepang Supplier Plat Kapal Bki Krakatau Steel Pabrik Pipa Besi baja Pabrik besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton Distributor besi wf Distributor besi wf Agen besi cnp Distributor besi hollow Agen besi unp undangan pernikahan bermanfaat Supplier Jual Besi Siku Baja Distributor Plat Kapal Besi baja Distributor plat besi hitam jasa konstruksi baja Harga besi wf Harga besi wf Agen besi hollow Harga besi hollow Agen besi siku undangan pernikahan ada fotonya Supplier Besi Unp Baja Profil Kanal Supplier Plat Kapal Besi baja Harga plat besi hitam www.pusatbesibaja.co.id Jual besi wf Jual besi wf Agen besi beton Sni Ulir Polos Jual besi hollow Agen Plat besi plat kapal undangancinta.com Supplier Besi Cnp Profil Baja Gording Agen Plat Kapal Besi baja Jual plat besi hitam undangan pernikahan islami undangan pernikahan unik dan murah www.pusatbesibaja.com Supplier besi wf Supplier besi wf ironsteelcenter.com Supplier besi hollow Agen besi h beam baja undangan pernikahan cantik dan murah Supplier Besi Hollow Toko Plat Kapal Besi baja Supplier plat besi hitam www.jualbesibajamurah.com Toko besi wf Toko besi wf Toko stainless steel Toko besi hollow Agen besi cnp undangan pernikahan akrilik Supplier Wiremesh Jual Plat Kapal Besi baja Toko plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton Sni Ulir Polos polos ulir Agen besi wf Agen besi wf Toko atap spandek Agen besi hollow www.gudangbesibaja.com undangan pernikahan bentuk tas Supplier Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 80 Harga Plat Kapal Besi baja Agen plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton sii Pabrik besi wf Pabrik besi wf Toko baja ringan Pabrik besi hollow Toko besi Wf Baja undangan pernikahan online Supplier Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 40 Pabrik Plat Kapal Besi baja Pabrik plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton psi Ulir Polos Distributor besi hollow Distributor besi hollow Toko bondek Distributor pipa besi Toko bondek undangan pernikahan modern Supplier Pipa Besi Hitam Medium Distributor Wiremesh Besi baja Distributor plat kapal besi baja Pabrik besi beton perwira Harga besi hollow Harga besi hollow Toko Plat kapal besi baja bki krakatau steel Harga pipa besi Toko wiremesh undangan pernikahan unik dan murah Supplier Besi Wf Supplier Wiremesh Besi baja Harga plat kapal besi baja Pabrik besi beton PAS link8
Addam (Aug. 02, 2017)
Want to know your favorite team history and want to know the prediction match your favorite team ,, ??? Let's visit our site Prediksi Agen Bola , visit here Prediction Agent Bal
terry1955 (Jul. 31, 2017)
Mulberry is the UK's top leather brand, its founder Roger Saul, since 1970 in mulberry replica Somerset pastoral garden in the establishment of MULBERRY leather kingdom, has been the most innovative British style avant-garde leather. MULBERRY specializes in leather products, by MULBERRY located in the southwest of replica handbags uk England factory craftsmanship to create, combined with practical, original and leather touch, ingenuity of creative design escape other brands of gorgeous style, to the classic antique style, Thick and thick smell of leather, a large number of the use of metal rivets, and buckle, the old copper metal parts, people can not help but think of medieval Europe, a little parked and dream of the castle knight, this is the shoddy sub The product can not easily imitate the legend. Due to special attention to cheap designer handbags the material, so the same package in different leather production, showing the flavor is not the same, like the exotic Congo leather, rough Scotchgrain leather, and high quality delicate British Matt glove leather, durability Of course, regardless of Xuan Xuan, but with different dyeing, anyone can find the most suitable for their own color, as if tailored to the general, so many fashionable men and women difficult to replica mulberry resist its charm.
AsharSeo (Jul. 27, 2017)
Much appreciated such a great amount for this data. I need to tell you I agree on a few of the focuses you make here and others might require some further survey, however I can see your perspective. live sub count
Alvina Ria (Jul. 24, 2017)
Your site is truly cool and this is an awesome motivating article. Much obliged to you to such an extent. write my paper
RTYHRY (Jul. 20, 2017)
Compared to electronic movements, mechanical cheap rolex watches are less accurate, often with errors of seconds per day, and they are sensitive to position, temperature and magnetism. They are also costly to produce, require regular maintenance and adjustments, and are more prone to failures. Nevertheless, the craftsmanship of mechanical rolex replica watches still attracts interest from part of the watch-buying public, especially among the watch collectors. Skeleton replica rolex watches are designed to leave the mechanism visible for aesthetic purposes.
Karle (Jul. 18, 2017)
kicksvovo will be always your dear friend here.
Robinjack (Jul. 18, 2017)
A debt of gratitude is in order for setting aside an ideal opportunity to talk about this, I feel unequivocally about it and affection adapting more on this subject. On the off chance that conceivable, as you pick up mastery, would you brain redesigning your web journal with additional data? It is to a great degree accommodating for me. 20 Questions
terry1955 (Jul. 14, 2017)
Louis Vuitton France's top luxury products, both in the brand or the quality can be said to be elegant and luxurious. Whether you are in public or at louis vuitton replica a grand banquet your hands in the LV will be your only focus. Luxury but yet elegant, retro but not fashionable. So that you are the only focus of attention in the crowd. Whether it is in the manual or in the production, LV is not only a popular fashion brand, has been able to become a century classic, the key reason is to allow consumers to enjoy the nobility of quality, so that you can become the focus of everyone's eyes. Both in terms of quality and price on the LV can make you feel the forefront of the world fashion style. LV to create suitcase began, the brand to practical, refined, comfortable as the basis for the design. LV Group now has more than 50 brands of products, so you feel the world-class design LV style! This section of the bag without losing the elegant eyes, the color is very soft but not the lack of replica louis vuitton bags noble, heart of the preferential prices we quickly heart it.
ESDW (Jul. 13, 2017)
High-end replica handbags uk from top-tier luxury brands ranging from Chanel, Dior, Gucci, Hermes and Prada to Louis Vuitton are now available for rent on a platform called “Dou Bao Bao”, which literally means “show off your cheap designer handbags” in Mandarin. The platform, launched last month, is built on WeChat, China’s smash-hit chat app, and transactions are supported by WeChat Pay, one of the two big digital wallets in the country.
GNBF (Jul. 12, 2017)
De stijging in verkoop is vooral te danken aan de grootste markt voor het merk, Groot-Brittanni?. Dit gebied zag een stijging van 10 procent en behaalde uiteindelijk een omzet van 106,8 miljoen pond (121 miljoen euro). De overige gebieden waar Mulberry Replica Handbags aanwezig is, zagen een gezamenlijke toename van 1 procent in de verkoop tot een omzet van 21,5 miljoen pond (24,4 miljoen euro). In totaal heeft cheap mulberry bags op dit moment 67 eigen winkels. Het afgelopen jaar sloten twee filialen in Amerika, maar opende een locatie in Sydney. Dit jaar zullen nog winkels in Hong Kong, China en Taiwan openen van het merk.
Router (Jul. 09, 2017)
Good article and very interesting information, thanks 192.168.0.1
EDWFDC (Jul. 08, 2017)
Longchamp outlet begins a new digital stage in Mexico. On June 1, the French firm launched its online store for the Mexican market. The French leather goods brand has arrived at the Luxury Avenue e-commerce platform, where it offers its iconic Paris Premier and Penélope handbags, as well as the Le Foulonné, Longchamp outlet 3D, Boxford and Le Pliage models for men and women.
lan (Jul. 07, 2017)
Brand positioning replica watches uk , to solemn, practical, not flashy style of popular people loved. Consumer groups located in the 30-65 year old men, rolex replica stable, applicable, not flashy design style, much emphasis on people, and the accuracy and durability of rolex replica even more extraordinary.
cheap toms shoes (Jul. 07, 2017)
In 2006, on a journey to Argentina, TOMS founder Blake Mycoskie witnessed the hardships faced by local children, and the children did not even have decent shoes to cheap toms shoes protect their feet. In order to help the children, he founded the TOMS brand, and promised customers to buy a pair of new shoes, the company will give a child in need of a pair of new shoes.A simple idea to develop into a strong business model. After recognizing that the ONE FOR ONE concept also serves other needs, TOMS introduced TOMS glasses in 2011, the TOMS Roasting Co. coffee brand in 2014, and the TOMS bag and TOMS road shoulder bag series in 2015. According to ONE FOR ONE, the purchase of these products will help people in need to toms outlet uk improve their lives, including helping them to restore their eyesight, providing them with safe drinking water, implementing safe delivery practices, and assisting in tyranny prevention and response programs Implementation.
Robinjack (Jul. 06, 2017)
This sort of message continually moving and I want to peruse quality substance, so glad to discover great spot to numerous here in the post, the composition is simply awesome, a debt of gratitude is in order for the post. Fidget Spinner Promotional Products
asd (Jul. 01, 2017)
http://mobilelocksmithgoldcoast.net.au When you are driving downtown, you may see a billboard, or a truck driving by, that has the name and phone number of a locksmith that operates in your community.
yash pandit (Jun. 15, 2017)
http://augustfreecalendar2016.weebly.com/
Robinjack (Jun. 15, 2017)
Pleasant learning picking up article. This post is truly the best on this significant theme. cheap designer women clothes
Robinjack (Jun. 07, 2017)
"Boredom is a killer—which is why a cure for boredom can be a lifesaver. The truth is, portable Bluetooth speakers have been the handheld solution to elevate the moment, whether at the beach, the middle of a party, or a lazy afternoon at home for years now—and your brand can get in on that excitement. Right now—with C2BPromo.com, you can put you logo on a wide array of Promotional Bluetooth Speakers, in all different shapes and sizes, from waterproof to resilient wood—with models coming in at 6-7 dollars all the way up to high-end luxury designs. Multiple surfaces on almost every customized Bluetooth speaker can showcase your logo—so no matter which way it’s turned, your name is always center staged." Promotional Bluetooth Speaker
Exalt (May. 31, 2017)
First time i see this type of post. Nice question and really good advice. I just say when you start fight just fell relax. Bundle of thanks. domaindatas.org
Robinjack (May. 30, 2017)
Your site is truly cool and this is an awesome motivating article. Much obliged to you to such an extent. cheap 55 printers
Robinjack (May. 28, 2017)
It was a decent post surely. I altogether appreciated understanding it in my lunch time. Will without a doubt come and visit this blog all the more frequently. Much obliged for sharing. Kinky sex ideas
Ashar Seo (May. 28, 2017)
informative Blog! Really decent post. I just unearthed your weblog and needed to say that I have truly delighted in searching your blog entries. After all I"ll be subscribing to your food and I trust you compose again soon! http://www.druglawsuitclaims.com/drugs/risperdal-gynecomastia
Robinjack (May. 28, 2017)
I like this post,And I figure that they having a great time to peruse this post,they might take a decent site to make an information,thanks for sharing it to me. court reporting college
Ashar Seo (May. 20, 2017)
Truly an extraordinary expansion. I have perused this magnificent post. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing data about it. I truly like that. Much appreciated so parcel for your meet. economical color copies
iOS Application Development Service (May. 19, 2017)
Thanks for sharing such useful post keep it up :) https://www.theappgods.com/
Essay Writing Service (May. 19, 2017)
I personally like your post, you have shared good article. It will help me in great deal. https://www.termpaperwriting.services
PHP Online help (May. 19, 2017)
Things are very open and intensely clear explanation of issues. was truly information. Your website is very beneficial. http://phphelponline.com/
Help With Operating System Assignment (May. 18, 2017)
only professional writers can make this kind of material, cheers https://www.oshelponline.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/
Medical Science Project Help (May. 18, 2017)
This is really great work. Thank you for sharing such useful information here in the blog. http://www.medassignments.com/

Home | Copyright © 2017, Russian-American Education Forum